That’s Prince Khurram, AKA Shah Jahan, next to the emperor. He is currently the governor of Surat, and will soon launch an open rebellion against his father. He doesn’t care about birds. Or science. Unless you count architecture, which he definitely is a fan of (after his father’s death he becomes emperor, and then when his wife dies he commissions the Taj Mahal to bury her in). Both of them could be described as “good” emperors, depending on your point of view, but they sure never got along.

James the First is king of England and Scotland right now, but I don’t know anything about him.